Detection of Cosmic Structures using the Bispectrum Phase. II. First Results from Application to Cosmic Reionization Using the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array. (arXiv:2005.10275v1 [astro-ph.CO])

Detection of Cosmic Structures using the Bispectrum Phase. II. First Results from Application to Cosmic Reionization Using the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array. (arXiv:2005.10275v1 [astro-ph.CO])
<a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Thyagarajan_N/0/1/0/all/0/1">Nithyanandan Thyagarajan</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Carilli_C/0/1/0/all/0/1">Chris L. Carilli</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Nikolic_B/0/1/0/all/0/1">Bojan Nikolic</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Kent_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">James Kent</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Mesinger_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">Andrei Mesinger</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Kern_N/0/1/0/all/0/1">Nicholas S. Kern</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Bernardi_G/0/1/0/all/0/1">Gianni Bernardi</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Matika_S/0/1/0/all/0/1">Siyanda Matika</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Abdurashidova_Z/0/1/0/all/0/1">Zara Abdurashidova</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Aguirre_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">James E. Aguirre</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Alexander_P/0/1/0/all/0/1">Paul Alexander</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Ali_Z/0/1/0/all/0/1">Zaki S. Ali</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Balfour_Y/0/1/0/all/0/1">Yanga Balfour</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Beardsley_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">Adam P. Beardsley</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Billings_T/0/1/0/all/0/1">Tashalee S. Billings</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Bowman_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">Judd D. Bowman</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Bradley_R/0/1/0/all/0/1">Richard F. Bradley</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Burba_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">Jacob Burba</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Carey_S/0/1/0/all/0/1">Steve Carey</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Cheng_C/0/1/0/all/0/1">Carina Cheng</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+DeBoer_D/0/1/0/all/0/1">David R. DeBoer</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Dexter_M/0/1/0/all/0/1">Matt Dexter</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Acedo_E/0/1/0/all/0/1">Eloy de Lera Acedo</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Dillon_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">Joshua S. Dillon</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Ely_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">John Ely</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Ewall_Wice_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">Aaron Ewall-Wice</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Fagnoni_N/0/1/0/all/0/1">Nicolas Fagnoni</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Fritz_R/0/1/0/all/0/1">Randall Fritz</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Furlanetto_S/0/1/0/all/0/1">Steven R. Furlanetto</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Gale_Sides_K/0/1/0/all/0/1">Kingsley Gale-Sides</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Glendenning_B/0/1/0/all/0/1">Brian Glendenning</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Gorthi_D/0/1/0/all/0/1">Deepthi Gorthi</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Greig_B/0/1/0/all/0/1">Bradley Greig</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Grobbelaar_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">Jasper Grobbelaar</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Halday_Z/0/1/0/all/0/1">Ziyaad Halday</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Hazelton_B/0/1/0/all/0/1">Bryna J. Hazelton</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Hewitt_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">Jacqueline N. Hewitt</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Hickish_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">Jack Hickish</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Jacobs_D/0/1/0/all/0/1">Daniel C. Jacobs</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Julius_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">Austin Julius</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Kerrigan_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">Joshua Kerrigan</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Kittiwisit_P/0/1/0/all/0/1">Piyanat Kittiwisit</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Kohn_S/0/1/0/all/0/1">Saul A. Kohn</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Kolopanis_M/0/1/0/all/0/1">Matthew Kolopanis</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Lanman_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">Adam Lanman</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Plante_P/0/1/0/all/0/1">Paul La Plante</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Lekalake_T/0/1/0/all/0/1">Telalo Lekalake</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Lewis_D/0/1/0/all/0/1">David Lewis</a>, et al. (24 additional authors not shown)

Characterizing the epoch of reionization (EoR) at $zgtrsim 6$ via the
redshifted 21 cm line of neutral Hydrogen (HI) is critical to modern
astrophysics and cosmology, and thus a key science goal of many current and
planned low-frequency radio telescopes. The primary challenge to detecting this
signal is the overwhelmingly bright foreground emission at these frequencies,
placing stringent requirements on the knowledge of the instruments and
inaccuracies in analyses. Results from these experiments have largely been
limited not by thermal sensitivity but by systematics, particularly caused by
the inability to calibrate the instrument to high accuracy. The interferometric
bispectrum phase is immune to antenna-based calibration and errors therein, and
presents an independent alternative to detect the EoR HI fluctuations while
largely avoiding calibration systematics. Here, we provide a demonstration of
this technique on a subset of data from the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization
Array (HERA) to place approximate constraints on the IGM brightness
temperature. From this limited data, at $z=7.7$ we infer “$1sigma$” upper
limits on the IGM brightness temperature to be $le 316$ “pseudo” mK at
$kappa_parallel=0.33,textrm{“pseudo”},h$ Mpc$^{-1}$ (data-limited) and
$le 1000$ “pseudo” mK at $kappa_parallel=0.875,textrm{“pseudo”},h$
Mpc$^{-1}$ (noise-limited). The “pseudo” units denote only an approximate and
not an exact correspondence to the actual distance scales and brightness
temperatures. By propagating models in parallel to the data analysis, we
confirm that the dynamic range required to separate the cosmic HI signal from
the foregrounds is similar to that in standard approaches, and the power
spectrum of the bispectrum phase is still data-limited (at $gtrsim 10^6$
dynamic range) indicating scope for further improvement in sensitivity as the
array build-out continues.

Characterizing the epoch of reionization (EoR) at $zgtrsim 6$ via the
redshifted 21 cm line of neutral Hydrogen (HI) is critical to modern
astrophysics and cosmology, and thus a key science goal of many current and
planned low-frequency radio telescopes. The primary challenge to detecting this
signal is the overwhelmingly bright foreground emission at these frequencies,
placing stringent requirements on the knowledge of the instruments and
inaccuracies in analyses. Results from these experiments have largely been
limited not by thermal sensitivity but by systematics, particularly caused by
the inability to calibrate the instrument to high accuracy. The interferometric
bispectrum phase is immune to antenna-based calibration and errors therein, and
presents an independent alternative to detect the EoR HI fluctuations while
largely avoiding calibration systematics. Here, we provide a demonstration of
this technique on a subset of data from the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization
Array (HERA) to place approximate constraints on the IGM brightness
temperature. From this limited data, at $z=7.7$ we infer “$1sigma$” upper
limits on the IGM brightness temperature to be $le 316$ “pseudo” mK at
$kappa_parallel=0.33,textrm{“pseudo”},h$ Mpc$^{-1}$ (data-limited) and
$le 1000$ “pseudo” mK at $kappa_parallel=0.875,textrm{“pseudo”},h$
Mpc$^{-1}$ (noise-limited). The “pseudo” units denote only an approximate and
not an exact correspondence to the actual distance scales and brightness
temperatures. By propagating models in parallel to the data analysis, we
confirm that the dynamic range required to separate the cosmic HI signal from
the foregrounds is similar to that in standard approaches, and the power
spectrum of the bispectrum phase is still data-limited (at $gtrsim 10^6$
dynamic range) indicating scope for further improvement in sensitivity as the
array build-out continues.

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