Ultraviolet-Based Science in the Solar System: Advances and Next Steps. (arXiv:2007.14993v1 [astro-ph.IM])

Ultraviolet-Based Science in the Solar System: Advances and Next Steps. (arXiv:2007.14993v1 [astro-ph.IM])
<a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Hendrix_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">Amanda R. Hendrix</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Becker_T/0/1/0/all/0/1">Tracy M. Becker</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Bodewits_D/0/1/0/all/0/1">Dennis Bodewits</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Bradley_E/0/1/0/all/0/1">E. Todd Bradley</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Brooks_S/0/1/0/all/0/1">Shawn Brooks</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Byron_B/0/1/0/all/0/1">Ben Byron</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Cahill_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">Josh Cahill</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Clarke_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">John Clarke</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Feaga_L/0/1/0/all/0/1">Lori Feaga</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Feldman_P/0/1/0/all/0/1">Paul Feldman</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Gladstone_G/0/1/0/all/0/1">G. Randall Gladstone</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Hansen_C/0/1/0/all/0/1">Candice J. Hansen</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Hibbitts_C/0/1/0/all/0/1">Charles Hibbitts</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Koskinen_T/0/1/0/all/0/1">Tommi T. Koskinen</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Magana_L/0/1/0/all/0/1">Lizeth Magana</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Molyneux_P/0/1/0/all/0/1">Philippa Molyneux</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Nikzad_S/0/1/0/all/0/1">Shouleh Nikzad</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Noonan_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">John Noonan</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Pryor_W/0/1/0/all/0/1">Wayne Pryor</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Raut_U/0/1/0/all/0/1">Ujjwal Raut</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Retherford_K/0/1/0/all/0/1">Kurt D. Retherford</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Roth_L/0/1/0/all/0/1">Lorenz Roth</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Royer_E/0/1/0/all/0/1">Emilie Royer</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Sciamma_OBrien_E/0/1/0/all/0/1">Ella Sciamma-O&#x27;Brien</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Stern_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">Alan Stern</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Stockstill_Cahill_K/0/1/0/all/0/1">Karen Stockstill-Cahill</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Vilas_F/0/1/0/all/0/1">Faith Vilas</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+West_B/0/1/0/all/0/1">Bob West</a>

We review the importance of recent UV observations of solar system targets
and discuss the need for further measurements, instrumentation and laboratory
work in the coming decade.

In the past decade, numerous important advances have been made in solar
system science using ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopic techniques. Formerly used
nearly exclusively for studies of giant planet atmospheres, planetary
exospheres and cometary emissions, UV imaging spectroscopy has recently been
more widely applied. The geyser-like plume at Saturn’s moon Enceladus was
discovered in part as a result of UV stellar occultation observations, and this
technique was used to characterize the plume and jets during the entire Cassini
mission. Evidence for a similar style of activity has been found at Jupiter’s
moon Europa using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) UV emission and absorption
imaging. At other moons and small bodies throughout the solar system, UV
spectroscopy has been utilized to search for activity, probe surface
composition, and delineate space weathering effects; UV photometric studies
have been used to uncover regolith structure. Insights from UV imaging
spectroscopy of solar system surfaces have been gained largely in the last 1-2
decades, including studies of surface composition, space weathering effects
(e.g. radiolytic products) and volatiles on asteroids (e.g.
[2][39][48][76][84]), the Moon (e.g. [30][46][49]), comet nuclei (e.g. [85])
and icy satellites (e.g. [38][41-44][45][47][65]). The UV is sensitive to some
species, minor contaminants and grain sizes often not detected in other
spectral regimes.

In the coming decade, HST observations will likely come to an end. New
infrastructure to bolster future UV studies is critically needed. These needs
include both developmental work to help improve future UV observations and
laboratory work to help interpret spacecraft data. UV instrumentation will be a
critical tool on missions to a variety of targets in the coming decade,
especially for the rapidly expanding application of UV reflectance
investigations of atmosphereless bodies.

We review the importance of recent UV observations of solar system targets
and discuss the need for further measurements, instrumentation and laboratory
work in the coming decade.

In the past decade, numerous important advances have been made in solar
system science using ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopic techniques. Formerly used
nearly exclusively for studies of giant planet atmospheres, planetary
exospheres and cometary emissions, UV imaging spectroscopy has recently been
more widely applied. The geyser-like plume at Saturn’s moon Enceladus was
discovered in part as a result of UV stellar occultation observations, and this
technique was used to characterize the plume and jets during the entire Cassini
mission. Evidence for a similar style of activity has been found at Jupiter’s
moon Europa using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) UV emission and absorption
imaging. At other moons and small bodies throughout the solar system, UV
spectroscopy has been utilized to search for activity, probe surface
composition, and delineate space weathering effects; UV photometric studies
have been used to uncover regolith structure. Insights from UV imaging
spectroscopy of solar system surfaces have been gained largely in the last 1-2
decades, including studies of surface composition, space weathering effects
(e.g. radiolytic products) and volatiles on asteroids (e.g.
[2][39][48][76][84]), the Moon (e.g. [30][46][49]), comet nuclei (e.g. [85])
and icy satellites (e.g. [38][41-44][45][47][65]). The UV is sensitive to some
species, minor contaminants and grain sizes often not detected in other
spectral regimes.

In the coming decade, HST observations will likely come to an end. New
infrastructure to bolster future UV studies is critically needed. These needs
include both developmental work to help improve future UV observations and
laboratory work to help interpret spacecraft data. UV instrumentation will be a
critical tool on missions to a variety of targets in the coming decade,
especially for the rapidly expanding application of UV reflectance
investigations of atmosphereless bodies.

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