Self-consistent 3D Supernova Models From -7 Minutes to +7 Seconds: a 1-bethe Explosion of a ~19 Solar-mass Progenitor. (arXiv:2010.10506v1 [astro-ph.HE])

Self-consistent 3D Supernova Models From -7 Minutes to +7 Seconds: a 1-bethe Explosion of a ~19 Solar-mass Progenitor. (arXiv:2010.10506v1 [astro-ph.HE])
<a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Bollig_R/0/1/0/all/0/1">R. Bollig</a> (1), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Yadav_N/0/1/0/all/0/1">N. Yadav</a> (1,2), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Kresse_D/0/1/0/all/0/1">D. Kresse</a> (1,3), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Janka_H/0/1/0/all/0/1">H.-Th. Janka</a> (1), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Mueller_B/0/1/0/all/0/1">B. Mueller</a> (4,5,6), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Heger_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">A. Heger</a> (4,5,7,8) ((1) MPI Astrophysics, Garching, (2) Excellence Cluster ORIGINS, (3) TU Muenchen, (4) Monash University, (5) ARCCEGWD, Clayton, (6) Queen&#x27;s University Belfast, (7) ASTRO-3D, Australia, (8) JINA, Michigan State Univ.)

To date, modern three-dimensional (3D) supernova (SN) simulations have not
demonstrated that explosion energies of 10^{51} erg (= 1 bethe = 1B) or more
are possible for neutrino-driven SNe of typical progenitors. We present the
first such model, considering a non-rotating, solar-metallicity 18.88
solar-mass progenitor, whose final 7 minutes of convective oxygen-shell burning
were simulated in 3D and showed a violent oxygen-neon shell merger prior to
collapse. A large set of 3D SN-models was computed with the Prometheus-Vertex
code, whose improved convergence of the two-moment equations with Boltzmann
closure allows now to fully exploit the implicit neutrino-transport treatment.
The calculations include a nuclear-burning network with 23 species. We vary the
angular grid resolution and consider different nuclear equations of state and
muon formation in the proto-neutron star (PNS), which requires six-species
transport with coupling of all neutrino flavors across all energy-momentum
groups. Refined neutrino transport was applied until ~2 seconds after bounce.
In one case the simulation was continued to >7 seconds with an approximate
treatment of neutrino effects that allows for seamless continuation without
transients. A spherically symmetric neutrino-driven wind does not develop.
Instead, accretion downflows to the PNS and outflows of neutrino-heated matter
establish a monotonic rise of the explosion energy until ~7 s post bounce, when
the outgoing shock reaches about 50,000 km and enters the He-layer. The
converged value of the explosion energy at infinity (with overburden
subtracted) is roughly 1B and the ejected 56Ni mass up to 0.087 solar masses,
both in the ballpark of SN 1987A. The final NS mass and kick are about 1.65
solar masses and over 450 km/s, respectively.

To date, modern three-dimensional (3D) supernova (SN) simulations have not
demonstrated that explosion energies of 10^{51} erg (= 1 bethe = 1B) or more
are possible for neutrino-driven SNe of typical progenitors. We present the
first such model, considering a non-rotating, solar-metallicity 18.88
solar-mass progenitor, whose final 7 minutes of convective oxygen-shell burning
were simulated in 3D and showed a violent oxygen-neon shell merger prior to
collapse. A large set of 3D SN-models was computed with the Prometheus-Vertex
code, whose improved convergence of the two-moment equations with Boltzmann
closure allows now to fully exploit the implicit neutrino-transport treatment.
The calculations include a nuclear-burning network with 23 species. We vary the
angular grid resolution and consider different nuclear equations of state and
muon formation in the proto-neutron star (PNS), which requires six-species
transport with coupling of all neutrino flavors across all energy-momentum
groups. Refined neutrino transport was applied until ~2 seconds after bounce.
In one case the simulation was continued to >7 seconds with an approximate
treatment of neutrino effects that allows for seamless continuation without
transients. A spherically symmetric neutrino-driven wind does not develop.
Instead, accretion downflows to the PNS and outflows of neutrino-heated matter
establish a monotonic rise of the explosion energy until ~7 s post bounce, when
the outgoing shock reaches about 50,000 km and enters the He-layer. The
converged value of the explosion energy at infinity (with overburden
subtracted) is roughly 1B and the ejected 56Ni mass up to 0.087 solar masses,
both in the ballpark of SN 1987A. The final NS mass and kick are about 1.65
solar masses and over 450 km/s, respectively.

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