GS 2000+25: The Least Luminous Black Hole X-ray Binary. (arXiv:1912.01029v1 [astro-ph.HE])

GS 2000+25: The Least Luminous Black Hole X-ray Binary. (arXiv:1912.01029v1 [astro-ph.HE])
<a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Rodriguez_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">J. Rodriguez</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Urquhart_R/0/1/0/all/0/1">R. Urquhart</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Plotkin_R/0/1/0/all/0/1">R. M. Plotkin</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Panurach_T/0/1/0/all/0/1">T. Panurach</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Chomiuk_L/0/1/0/all/0/1">L. Chomiuk</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Strader_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">J. Strader</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Miller_Jones_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">J. C. A. Miller-Jones</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Gallo_E/0/1/0/all/0/1">E. Gallo</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Sivakof_G/0/1/0/all/0/1">G. R. Sivakof</a>

Little is known about the properties of the accretion flows and jets of the
lowest-luminosity quiescent black holes. We report new, strictly simultaneous
radio and X-ray observations of the nearby stellar-mass black hole X-ray binary
GS 2000+25 in its quiescent state. In deep Chandra observations we detect the
system at a faint X-ray luminosity of $L_X = 1.1^{+1.0}_{-0.7} times
10^{30},(d/2 {rm ,, kpc})^2$ erg s$^{-1}$ (1-10 keV). This is the lowest
X-ray luminosity yet observed for a quiescent black hole X-ray binary,
corresponding to an Eddington ratio $L_X/L_{rm Edd} sim 10^{-9}$. In 15 hours
of observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, no radio continuum
emission is detected to a $3sigma$ limit of $< 2.8 mu$Jy at 6 GHz. Including GS 2000+25, four quiescent stellar-mass black holes with $L_X < 10^{32}$ erg s$^{-1}$ have deep simultaneous radio and X-ray observations and known distances. These sources all have radio to X-ray luminosity ratios generally consistent with, but slightly lower than, the low state radio/X-ray correlation for stellar-mass black holes with $L_X > 10^{32}$ erg s$^{-1}$. Observations of
these sources tax the limits of our current X-ray and radio facilities, and new
routes to black hole discovery are needed to study the lowest-luminosity black
holes.

Little is known about the properties of the accretion flows and jets of the
lowest-luminosity quiescent black holes. We report new, strictly simultaneous
radio and X-ray observations of the nearby stellar-mass black hole X-ray binary
GS 2000+25 in its quiescent state. In deep Chandra observations we detect the
system at a faint X-ray luminosity of $L_X = 1.1^{+1.0}_{-0.7} times
10^{30},(d/2 {rm ,, kpc})^2$ erg s$^{-1}$ (1-10 keV). This is the lowest
X-ray luminosity yet observed for a quiescent black hole X-ray binary,
corresponding to an Eddington ratio $L_X/L_{rm Edd} sim 10^{-9}$. In 15 hours
of observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, no radio continuum
emission is detected to a $3sigma$ limit of $< 2.8 mu$Jy at 6 GHz. Including
GS 2000+25, four quiescent stellar-mass black holes with $L_X < 10^{32}$ erg
s$^{-1}$ have deep simultaneous radio and X-ray observations and known
distances. These sources all have radio to X-ray luminosity ratios generally
consistent with, but slightly lower than, the low state radio/X-ray correlation
for stellar-mass black holes with $L_X > 10^{32}$ erg s$^{-1}$. Observations of
these sources tax the limits of our current X-ray and radio facilities, and new
routes to black hole discovery are needed to study the lowest-luminosity black
holes.

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