Kibble mechanism for electroweak magnetic monopoles and magnetic fields. (arXiv:2108.05357v5 [hep-ph] UPDATED) <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/hep-ph/1/au:+Patel_T/0/1/0/all/0/1">Teerthal Patel</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/hep-ph/1/au:+Vachaspati_T/0/1/0/all/0/1">Tanmay Vachaspati</a> The vacuum manifold of the standard electroweak model is a three-sphere when one considers homogeneous Higgs field configurations. For inhomogeneous configurations we argue that the vacuum manifold is the Hopf fibered three sphere and that this viewpoint leads to general criteria to detect electroweak monopoles and Z-strings. We extend the Kibble mechanism to study the formation of electroweak monopoles and strings during electroweak symmetry breaking. The distribution of magnetic monopoles produces magnetic fields that have a spectrum $B_lambda propto lambda^{-2}$, where $lambda$ is a smearing length scale.Read More →

Anisotropies of Cosmic Optical and Near-IR Background from China Space Station Telescope (CSST). (arXiv:2108.10181v2 [astro-ph.CO] UPDATED) <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Cao_Y/0/1/0/all/0/1">Ye Cao</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Gong_Y/0/1/0/all/0/1">Yan Gong</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Liu_D/0/1/0/all/0/1">Dezi Liu</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Cooray_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">Asantha Cooray</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Feng_C/0/1/0/all/0/1">Chang Feng</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Chen_X/0/1/0/all/0/1">Xuelei Chen</a> Anisotropies of the cosmic optical background (COB) and cosmic near-IR background (CNIRB) are capable of addressing some of the key questions in cosmology and astrophysics. In this work, we measure and analyze the angular power spectra of the simulated COB and CNIRB in the ultra-deep field of the China Space Station Telescope (CSST-UDF). The CSST-UDF covers about 9 square degrees, with magnitude limits ~28.3, 28.2, 27.6, 26.7 AB mag for pointRead More →

Hubble finds a black hole igniting star formation in a dwarf galaxy Black holes are often described as the monsters of the universe—tearing apart stars, consuming anything that comes too close, and holding light captive. Detailed evidence from NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope, however, shows a black hole in a new light: Fostering rather than suppressing star formation. Hubble imaging and spectroscopy of the dwarf starburst galaxy Henize 2-10 clearly show a gas outflow stretching from the black hole to a bright star birth region like an umbilical cord, triggering the already dense cloud into forming clusters of stars. Astronomers have previously debated that a dwarfRead More →

A new Kind of Supernova has Been Discovered We often think of supernova explosions as inevitable for large stars. Big star runs out of fuel, gravity collapses its core and BOOM! But astronomers have long thought at least one type of large star didn’t end with a supernova. Known as Wolf-Rayet stars, they were thought to end with a quiet collapse of their core into a black hole. But a new discovery finds they might become supernovae after all. Wolf-Rayet stars are among the most massive stars known. They are at the end of their short lives, but rather than simply running out of fuelRead More →

Active galactic nucleus in NGC 2992 explored by researchers Researchers from the U.S. Naval Observatory and elsewhere have performed simultaneous observations of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the galaxy NGC 2992 using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and NASA’s Swift spacecraft. Results of the study, presented January 13 on arXiv.org, shed more light on the properties of this AGN and its galaxy. phys.org Go to SourceRead More →

Uncovering evidence for an internal ocean in small Saturn moon A Southwest Research Institute scientist set out to prove that the tiny, innermost moon of Saturn was a frozen inert satellite and instead discovered compelling evidence that Mimas has a liquid internal ocean. In the waning days of NASA’s Cassini mission, the spacecraft identified a curious libration, or oscillation, in the moon’s rotation, which often points to a geologically active body able to support an internal ocean. phys.org Go to SourceRead More →

Looking up at the asteroids in the neighborhood Asteroids fly through our solar system all the time, but it’s rare for us to take notice of them. But that’s changed this week, as an asteroid passes within 1,231,184 miles of Earth on January 18. The asteroid, dubbed 7482 (1994 PC1), was first seen in 1994 and is about two-thirds of a mile wide. phys.org Go to SourceRead More →

Space Flight Destroys Your Red Blood Cells It’s really true: space wants to kill us. And this time, space is trying to kill us from the inside out. A new study on astronauts living on board the International Space Station shows that while in space, the astronauts’ bodies destroyed 54 percent more red blood cells than they normally would on Earth. Even one year after their flight and back on Earth, the symptoms of “space anemia” persisted in the 14 astronauts tested. Anemia in astronauts has been known as an issue, even since some of the first human missions to space. Medical experts haven’t beenRead More →

Galaxy-Scale Test of General Relativity with Strong Gravitational Lensing. (arXiv:2109.02291v2 [astro-ph.CO] UPDATED) <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Liu_X/0/1/0/all/0/1">Xiao-Hui Liu</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Li_Z/0/1/0/all/0/1">Zhen-Hua Li</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Qi_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">Jing-Zhao Qi</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Zhang_X/0/1/0/all/0/1">Xin Zhang</a> Although general relativity (GR) has been precisely tested at the solar system scale, precise tests at a galactic or cosmological scale are still relatively insufficient. Here, in order to test GR at the galactic scale, we use the newly compiled galaxy-scale strong gravitational lensing (SGL) sample to constrain the parameter $gamma_{PPN}$ in the parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism. We employ the Pantheon sample of type Ia supernovae observation to calibrate the distances in the SGL systems using the Gaussian Process method, whichRead More →

The CHIME Fast Radio Burst Population Does Not Track the Star Formation History of the Universe. (arXiv:2109.07558v3 [astro-ph.HE] UPDATED) <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Zhang_R/0/1/0/all/0/1">Rachel C. Zhang</a> (Northwestern), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Zhang_B/0/1/0/all/0/1">Bing Zhang</a> (UNLV) The redshift distribution of fast radio bursts (FRBs) is not well constrained. The association of the Galactic FRB 200428 with the young magnetar SGR 1935+2154 raises the working hypothesis that FRB sources track the star formation history of the universe. The discovery of FRB 20200120E in association with a globular cluster in the nearby galaxy M81, however, casts doubts on such an assumption. We apply the Monte Carlo method developed in a previous work to test differentRead More →

Combinative Isobaric Resonances CIRs by MSS and from previous precise data. (arXiv:2011.09131v4 [nucl-ex] UPDATED) <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/nucl-ex/1/au:+Gafarov_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">A. Gafarov</a> The elastic scattering {12}^C(p,p{o}_) Excitation Function (EF) was measured in the energy range Ep =16 – 19.5 MeV with resolution about 10 keV by means of innovative approach – MSS – the Method of Spectra Superposition at the 14-angle Magnetic Spectrograph (Apelsin) at beam with an energy spread of about 200 keV from U-150 cyclotron of INP Ulugbek (Tashkent) of Science Academy of Uzbekistan [1-9]. The obtained EF has a reach structure of anomalies in precise agreement with thresholds and levels data [2,10-12]. Measurements were done on theRead More →

A new perspective on interiors of ice-rich planets: Ice-rock mixture instead of ice on top of rock. (arXiv:2011.00602v2 [astro-ph.EP] UPDATED) <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Vazan_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">Allona Vazan</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Sari_R/0/1/0/all/0/1">Re&#x27;em Sari</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Kessel_R/0/1/0/all/0/1">Ronit Kessel</a> Ice-rich planets are formed exterior to the water ice-line and thus are expected to contain a substantial amount of ices. The high ice content leads to unique conditions in the interior, under which the structure of a planet is affected by ice interaction with other metals. We apply experimental data of ice-rock interaction at high pressure, and calculate detailed thermal evolution for possible interior configurations of ice-rich planets, in the mass range of super-Earth to NeptunesRead More →

Dark Energy Survey Year 3 results: Marginalisation over redshift distribution uncertainties using ranking of discrete realisations. (arXiv:2109.09636v2 [astro-ph.CO] UPDATED) <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Cordero_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">Juan P. Cordero</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Harrison_I/0/1/0/all/0/1">Ian Harrison</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Rollins_R/0/1/0/all/0/1">Richard P. Rollins</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Bernstein_G/0/1/0/all/0/1">G. M. Bernstein</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Bridle_S/0/1/0/all/0/1">S. L. Bridle</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Alarcon_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">A. Alarcon</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Alves_O/0/1/0/all/0/1">O. Alves</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Amon_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">A. Amon</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Andrade_Oliveira_F/0/1/0/all/0/1">F. Andrade-Oliveira</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Camacho_H/0/1/0/all/0/1">H. Camacho</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Campos_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">A. Campos</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Choi_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">A. Choi</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+DeRose_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">J. DeRose</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Dodelson_S/0/1/0/all/0/1">S. Dodelson</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Eckert_K/0/1/0/all/0/1">K. Eckert</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Eifler_T/0/1/0/all/0/1">T. F. Eifler</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Everett_S/0/1/0/all/0/1">S. Everett</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Fang_X/0/1/0/all/0/1">X. Fang</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Friedrich_O/0/1/0/all/0/1">O. Friedrich</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Gruen_D/0/1/0/all/0/1">D. Gruen</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Gruendl_R/0/1/0/all/0/1">R. A. Gruendl</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Hartley_W/0/1/0/all/0/1">W. G. Hartley</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Huff_E/0/1/0/all/0/1">E. M. Huff</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Krause_E/0/1/0/all/0/1">E. Krause</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Kuropatkin_N/0/1/0/all/0/1">N. Kuropatkin</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+MacCrann_N/0/1/0/all/0/1">N. MacCrann</a>,Read More →

Why hot Jupiters can be large but not too large. (arXiv:2201.07008v1 [astro-ph.EP]) <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Hou_Q/0/1/0/all/0/1">Qiang Hou</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Wei_X/0/1/0/all/0/1">Xing Wei</a> Tidal heating is often used to interpret “radius anomaly” of hot Jupiters (i.e. radii of a large fraction of hot Jupiters are in excess of 1.2 Jupiter radius which cannot be interpreted by the standard theory of planetary evolution). In this paper we find that tidal heating induces another phenomenon “runaway inflation” (i.e. planet inflation becomes unstable and out of control when tidal heating rate is above its critical value). With sufficiently strong tidal heating, luminosity initially increases with inflation, but across its peak it decreases withRead More →

Milky Way Globular Clusters: close encounter rates with each other and with the Central Supermassive Black Hole. (arXiv:2201.06891v1 [astro-ph.GA]) <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Ishchenko_M/0/1/0/all/0/1">Maryna V. Ishchenko</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Sobolenko_M/0/1/0/all/0/1">Margarita O. Sobolenko</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Kalambay_M/0/1/0/all/0/1">Mukhagali T. Kalambay</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Shukirgaliyev_B/0/1/0/all/0/1">Bekdaulet T. Shukirgaliyev</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Berczik_P/0/1/0/all/0/1">Peter P. Berczik</a> Using the data from Gaia (ESA) Data Release 2 we performed the orbital calculations of globular clusters (GCs) of the Milky Way. To explore possible collisions between the GCs, using our developed highorder {phi}-GRAPE code, we integrated (backwards and forward) the orbits of 119 objects with reliable positions and proper motions. In calculations, we adopted a realistic axisymmetric Galactic potential (bulge + disk + halo). UsingRead More →

Eruption of EUV Hot-Channel near Solar Limb and Associated Moving Type-IV Radio Burst. (arXiv:2201.06899v1 [astro-ph.SR]) <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Vemareddy_P/0/1/0/all/0/1">P. Vemareddy</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Demoulin_P/0/1/0/all/0/1">P. D&#xe9;moulin</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Raja_K/0/1/0/all/0/1">K. Sasikumar Raja</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Zhang_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">J. Zhang</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Gopalswamy_N/0/1/0/all/0/1">N. Gopalswamy</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Vasantharaju_N/0/1/0/all/0/1">N. Vasantharaju</a> Using the observations from Solar Dynamics Observatory, we study an eruption of a hot-channel flux rope (FR) near the solar-limb on February 9, 2015. The pre-eruptive structure is visible mainly in EUV 131 $mathring{mathrm{A}}$ images with two highly-sheared loop structures. They undergo slow rise motion and then reconnect to form an eruptive hot-channel as in the tether-cutting reconnection model. The J-shaped flare-ribbons trace the footpoint of the FR which is identifiedRead More →

A Novel Approach to Topological Graph Theory with R-K Diagrams and Gravitational Wave Analysis. (arXiv:2201.06923v1 [astro-ph.HE]) <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Roy_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">Animikh Roy</a> (University of Sussex, UK), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Kesselman_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">Andor Kesselman</a> (Pathr.ai, USA) Graph Theory and Topological Data Analytics, while powerful, have many drawbacks related to their sensitivity and consistency with TDA & Graph Network Analytics. In this paper, we aim to propose a novel approach for encoding vectorized associations between data points for the purpose of enabling smooth transitions between Graph and Topological Data Analytics. We conclusively reveal effective ways of converting such vectorized associations to simplicial complexes representing micro-states in a Phase-Space, resulting in filter specific, homotopic self-expressive,Read More →

Thermal Relaxation and Cooling of Quark Stars with a Strangelet Crust. (arXiv:2201.06928v1 [hep-ph]) <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/hep-ph/1/au:+Zapata_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">Joas Zapata</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/hep-ph/1/au:+Negreiros_R/0/1/0/all/0/1">Rodrigo Negreiros</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/hep-ph/1/au:+Sales_T/0/1/0/all/0/1">Thiago Sales</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/hep-ph/1/au:+Jaikumar_P/0/1/0/all/0/1">Prashanth Jaikumar</a> In this article, we explore the cooling of isolated quark stars. These objects are structured of a homogeneous quark matter core and crusted by matter. To do this, we adopt two kinds of crust: (i) a crust made of purely nuclear matter following the Baym-Pethick-Sutherland (BPS) equation of state (EoS) and (ii) a crust made of nuggets of strange quark matter (strangelets). Both models have the same quark matter core described by the MIT bag model EoS. Our main purposeRead More →