Conditions for Reionizing the Universe with A Low Galaxy Ionizing Photon Escape Fraction. (arXiv:1902.02792v1 [astro-ph.CO])

<a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Finkelstein_S/0/1/0/all/0/1">Steven L. Finkelstein</a> (UT Austin), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+DAloisio_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">Anson D'Aloisio</a> (UC Riverside), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Paardekooper_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">Jan-Pieter Paardekooper</a> (Heidelberg), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Ryan_R/0/1/0/all/0/1">Russell Ryan Jr.</a> (STScI), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Behroozi_P/0/1/0/all/0/1">Peter Behroozi</a> (Arizona), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Finlator_K/0/1/0/all/0/1">Kristian Finlator</a> (NMSU), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Livermore_R/0/1/0/all/0/1">Rachael Livermore</a> (Melbourne), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Sanderbeck_P/0/1/0/all/0/1">Phoebe R. Upton Sanderbeck</a> (Washington), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Vecchia_C/0/1/0/all/0/1">Claudio Dalla Vecchia</a> (Universidad de La Laguna), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Khochfar_S/0/1/0/all/0/1">Sadegh Khochfar</a> (Edinburgh)

We explore scenarios for reionizing the intergalactic medium with low galaxy

ionizing photon escape fractions. We combine simulation-based halo-mass

dependent escape fractions with an extrapolation of the observed galaxy

rest-ultraviolet luminosity functions to solve for the reionization history

from z=20 to z=4. We explore the posterior distributions for key unknown

quantities, including the limiting halo mass for star-formation, the ionizing

photon production efficiency, and a potential contribution from active galactic

nuclei (AGN). We marginalize over the allowable parameter space using a Markov

Chain Monte Carlo method, finding a solution which satisfies the most

model-independent constraints on reionization. Our fiducial model can match

observational constraints with an average escape fraction of <5% throughout the
bulk of the epoch of reionization if: i) galaxies form stars down to the atomic
cooling limit before reionization and a photosuppression mass of
log(M_h/Msol)~9 during/after reionization (-13

dominate the ionizing emissivity, leading to an earlier start to reionization

and a smoother evolution of the ionized volume filling fraction than models

which assume a single escape fraction at all redshifts and luminosities. The

ionizing emissivity from this model is consistent with observations at z=4-5

(and below, when extrapolated), in contrast to some models which assume a

single escape fraction. Our predicted ionized volume filling fraction at z=7 of

Q_HII=78% (+- 8%) is in ~1-2 sigma tension with observations of Lya emitters

at z~7 and the damping wing analyses of the two known z>7 quasars, which prefer

Q_HII,z=7~40-50%.

We explore scenarios for reionizing the intergalactic medium with low galaxy

ionizing photon escape fractions. We combine simulation-based halo-mass

dependent escape fractions with an extrapolation of the observed galaxy

rest-ultraviolet luminosity functions to solve for the reionization history

from z=20 to z=4. We explore the posterior distributions for key unknown

quantities, including the limiting halo mass for star-formation, the ionizing

photon production efficiency, and a potential contribution from active galactic

nuclei (AGN). We marginalize over the allowable parameter space using a Markov

Chain Monte Carlo method, finding a solution which satisfies the most

model-independent constraints on reionization. Our fiducial model can match

observational constraints with an average escape fraction of <5% throughout the

bulk of the epoch of reionization if: i) galaxies form stars down to the atomic

cooling limit before reionization and a photosuppression mass of

log(M_h/Msol)~9 during/after reionization (-13<M_UV,lim<-11); ii) galaxies

become more efficient producers of ionizing photons at higher redshifts and

fainter magnitudes, and iii) there is a significant, but sub-dominant,

contribution by AGN at z < 7. In this model the faintest galaxies (M_UV>-15)

dominate the ionizing emissivity, leading to an earlier start to reionization

and a smoother evolution of the ionized volume filling fraction than models

which assume a single escape fraction at all redshifts and luminosities. The

ionizing emissivity from this model is consistent with observations at z=4-5

(and below, when extrapolated), in contrast to some models which assume a

single escape fraction. Our predicted ionized volume filling fraction at z=7 of

Q_HII=78% (+- 8%) is in ~1-2 sigma tension with observations of Lya emitters

at z~7 and the damping wing analyses of the two known z>7 quasars, which prefer

Q_HII,z=7~40-50%.

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