CO Multi-line Imaging of Nearby Galaxies (COMING) IV. Overview of the Project. (arXiv:1910.03863v1 [astro-ph.GA])

CO Multi-line Imaging of Nearby Galaxies (COMING) IV. Overview of the Project. (arXiv:1910.03863v1 [astro-ph.GA])
<a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Sorai_K/0/1/0/all/0/1">Kazuo Sorai</a> (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Kuno_N/0/1/0/all/0/1">Nario Kuno</a> (4 and 5), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Muraoka_K/0/1/0/all/0/1">Kazuyuki Muraoka</a> (6), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Miyamoto_Y/0/1/0/all/0/1">Yusuke Miyamoto</a> (7 and 8), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Kaneko_H/0/1/0/all/0/1">Hiroyuki Kaneko</a> (7), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Nakanishi_H/0/1/0/all/0/1">Hiroyuki Nakanishi</a> (9), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Nakai_N/0/1/0/all/0/1">Naomasa Nakai</a> (4, 5 and 10), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Yanagitani_K/0/1/0/all/0/1">Kazuki Yanagitani</a> (6), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Tanaka_T/0/1/0/all/0/1">Takahiro Tanaka</a> (4), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Sato_Y/0/1/0/all/0/1">Yuya Sato</a> (4), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Salak_D/0/1/0/all/0/1">Dragan Salak</a> (10), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Umei_M/0/1/0/all/0/1">Michiko Umei</a> (2), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Morokuma_Matsui_K/0/1/0/all/0/1">Kana Morokuma-Matsui</a> (7, 8, 11 and 12), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Matsumoto_N/0/1/0/all/0/1">Naoko Matsumoto</a> (13 and 14), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Ueno_S/0/1/0/all/0/1">Saeko Ueno</a> (9), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Pan_H/0/1/0/all/0/1">Hsi-An Pan</a> (15), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Noma_Y/0/1/0/all/0/1">Yuto Noma</a> (10), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Takeuchi_T/0/1/0/all/0/1">Tsutomu T. Takeuchi</a> (16), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Yoda_M/0/1/0/all/0/1">Moe Yoda</a> (16), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Kuroda_M/0/1/0/all/0/1">Mayu Kuroda</a> (6), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Yasuda_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">Atsushi Yasuda</a> (4), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Yajima_Y/0/1/0/all/0/1">Yoshiyuki Yajima</a> (2), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Oi_N/0/1/0/all/0/1">Nagisa Oi</a> (17), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Shibata_S/0/1/0/all/0/1">Shugo Shibata</a> (2), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Seta_M/0/1/0/all/0/1">Masumichi Seta</a> (10), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Watanabe_Y/0/1/0/all/0/1">Yoshimasa Watanabe</a> (4, 5 and 18), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Kita_S/0/1/0/all/0/1">Shoichiro Kita</a> (4), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Komatsuzaki_R/0/1/0/all/0/1">Ryusei Komatsuzaki</a> (4), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Kajikawa_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">Ayumi Kajikawa</a> (2 and 3), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Yashima_Y/0/1/0/all/0/1">Yu Yashima</a> (2 and 3), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Cooray_S/0/1/0/all/0/1">Suchetha Cooray</a> (16), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Baji_H/0/1/0/all/0/1">Hiroyuki Baji</a> (6), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Segawa_Y/0/1/0/all/0/1">Yoko Segawa</a> (2), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Tashiro_T/0/1/0/all/0/1">Takami Tashiro</a> (2), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Takeda_M/0/1/0/all/0/1">Miho Takeda</a> (6), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Kishida_N/0/1/0/all/0/1">Nozomi Kishida</a> (2), <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Hatakeyama_T/0/1/0/all/0/1">Takuya Hatakeyama</a> (4), et al. (2 additional authors not shown)

Observations of the molecular gas in galaxies are vital to understanding the
evolution and star-forming histories of galaxies. However, galaxies with
molecular gas maps of their whole discs having sufficient resolution to
distinguish galactic structures are severely lacking. Millimeter wavelength
studies at a high angular resolution across multiple lines and transitions are
particularly needed, severely limiting our ability to infer the universal
properties of molecular gas in galaxies. Hence, we conducted a legacy project
with the 45 m telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory, called the CO
Multi-line Imaging of Nearby Galaxies (COMING), which simultaneously observed
147 galaxies with high far-infrared flux in $^{12}$CO, $^{13}$CO, and C$^{18}$O
$J=1-0$ lines. The total molecular gas mass was derived using the standard
CO-to-H$_2$ conversion factor and found to be positively correlated with the
total stellar mass derived from the WISE $3.4 mu$m band data. The fraction of
the total molecular gas mass to the total stellar mass in galaxies does not
depend on their Hubble types nor the existence of a galactic bar, although when
galaxies in individual morphological types are investigated separately, the
fraction seems to decrease with the total stellar mass in early-type galaxies
and vice versa in late-type galaxies. No differences in the distribution of the
total molecular gas mass, stellar mass, and the total molecular gas to stellar
mass ratio was observed between barred and non-barred galaxies, which is likely
the result of our sample selection criteria, in that we prioritized observing
FIR bright (and thus molecular gas-rich) galaxies.

Observations of the molecular gas in galaxies are vital to understanding the
evolution and star-forming histories of galaxies. However, galaxies with
molecular gas maps of their whole discs having sufficient resolution to
distinguish galactic structures are severely lacking. Millimeter wavelength
studies at a high angular resolution across multiple lines and transitions are
particularly needed, severely limiting our ability to infer the universal
properties of molecular gas in galaxies. Hence, we conducted a legacy project
with the 45 m telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory, called the CO
Multi-line Imaging of Nearby Galaxies (COMING), which simultaneously observed
147 galaxies with high far-infrared flux in $^{12}$CO, $^{13}$CO, and C$^{18}$O
$J=1-0$ lines. The total molecular gas mass was derived using the standard
CO-to-H$_2$ conversion factor and found to be positively correlated with the
total stellar mass derived from the WISE $3.4 mu$m band data. The fraction of
the total molecular gas mass to the total stellar mass in galaxies does not
depend on their Hubble types nor the existence of a galactic bar, although when
galaxies in individual morphological types are investigated separately, the
fraction seems to decrease with the total stellar mass in early-type galaxies
and vice versa in late-type galaxies. No differences in the distribution of the
total molecular gas mass, stellar mass, and the total molecular gas to stellar
mass ratio was observed between barred and non-barred galaxies, which is likely
the result of our sample selection criteria, in that we prioritized observing
FIR bright (and thus molecular gas-rich) galaxies.

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