Catching Element Formation In The Act. (arXiv:1902.02915v1 [astro-ph.HE])

Catching Element Formation In The Act. (arXiv:1902.02915v1 [astro-ph.HE])
<a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Fryer_C/0/1/0/all/0/1">Chris L. Fryer</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Timmes_F/0/1/0/all/0/1">Frank Timmes</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Hungerford_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">Aimee L. Hungerford</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Couture_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">Aaron Couture</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Adams_F/0/1/0/all/0/1">Fred Adams</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Aoki_W/0/1/0/all/0/1">Wako Aoki</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Arcones_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">Almudena Arcones</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Arnett_D/0/1/0/all/0/1">David Arnett</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Auchettl_K/0/1/0/all/0/1">Katie Auchettl</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Avila_M/0/1/0/all/0/1">Melina Avila</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Badenes_C/0/1/0/all/0/1">Carles Badenes</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Baron_E/0/1/0/all/0/1">Eddie Baron</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Bauswein_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">Andreas Bauswein</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Beacom_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">John Beacom</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Blackmon_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">Jeff Blackmon</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Blondin_S/0/1/0/all/0/1">Stephane Blondin</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Bloser_P/0/1/0/all/0/1">Peter Bloser</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Boggs_S/0/1/0/all/0/1">Steve Boggs</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Boss_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">Alan Boss</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Brandt_T/0/1/0/all/0/1">Terri Brandt</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Bravo_E/0/1/0/all/0/1">Eduardo Bravo</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Brown_E/0/1/0/all/0/1">Ed Brown</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Brown_P/0/1/0/all/0/1">Peter Brown</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Budtz_Jorgensen_S/0/1/0/all/0/1">Steve Bruenn. Carl Budtz-Jorgensen</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Burns_E/0/1/0/all/0/1">Eric Burns</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Calder_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">Alan Calder</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Caputo_R/0/1/0/all/0/1">Regina Caputo</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Champagne_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">Art Champagne</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Chevalier_R/0/1/0/all/0/1">Roger Chevalier</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Chieffi_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">Alessandro Chieffi</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Chipps_K/0/1/0/all/0/1">Kelly Chipps</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Cinabro_D/0/1/0/all/0/1">David Cinabro</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Clarkson_O/0/1/0/all/0/1">Ondrea Clarkson</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Clayton_D/0/1/0/all/0/1">Don Clayton</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Coc_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">Alain Coc</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Connolly_D/0/1/0/all/0/1">Devin Connolly</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Conroy_C/0/1/0/all/0/1">Charlie Conroy</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Cote_B/0/1/0/all/0/1">Benoit Cote</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Couch_S/0/1/0/all/0/1">Sean Couch</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Dauphas_N/0/1/0/all/0/1">Nicolas Dauphas</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+deBoer_R/0/1/0/all/0/1">Richard James deBoer</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Deibel_C/0/1/0/all/0/1">Catherine Deibel</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Denisenkov_P/0/1/0/all/0/1">Pavel Denisenkov</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Desch_S/0/1/0/all/0/1">Steve Desch</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Dessart_L/0/1/0/all/0/1">Luc Dessart</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Diehl_R/0/1/0/all/0/1">Roland Diehl</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Doherty_C/0/1/0/all/0/1">Carolyn Doherty</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Dominguez_I/0/1/0/all/0/1">Inma Dominguez</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Dong_S/0/1/0/all/0/1">Subo Dong</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Dwarkadas_V/0/1/0/all/0/1">Vikram Dwarkadas</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Fan_D/0/1/0/all/0/1">Doreen Fan</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Fields_B/0/1/0/all/0/1">Brian Fields</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Fields_C/0/1/0/all/0/1">Carl Fields</a>, et al. (166 additional authors not shown)

Gamma-ray astronomy explores the most energetic photons in nature to address
some of the most pressing puzzles in contemporary astrophysics. It encompasses
a wide range of objects and phenomena: stars, supernovae, novae, neutron stars,
stellar-mass black holes, nucleosynthesis, the interstellar medium, cosmic rays
and relativistic-particle acceleration, and the evolution of galaxies. MeV
gamma-rays provide a unique probe of nuclear processes in astronomy, directly
measuring radioactive decay, nuclear de-excitation, and positron annihilation.
The substantial information carried by gamma-ray photons allows us to see
deeper into these objects, the bulk of the power is often emitted at gamma-ray
energies, and radioactivity provides a natural physical clock that adds unique
information. New science will be driven by time-domain population studies at
gamma-ray energies. This science is enabled by next-generation gamma-ray
instruments with one to two orders of magnitude better sensitivity, larger sky
coverage, and faster cadence than all previous gamma-ray instruments. This
transformative capability permits: (a) the accurate identification of the
gamma-ray emitting objects and correlations with observations taken at other
wavelengths and with other messengers; (b) construction of new gamma-ray maps
of the Milky Way and other nearby galaxies where extended regions are
distinguished from point sources; and (c) considerable serendipitous science of
scarce events — nearby neutron star mergers, for example. Advances in
technology push the performance of new gamma-ray instruments to address a wide
set of astrophysical questions.

Gamma-ray astronomy explores the most energetic photons in nature to address
some of the most pressing puzzles in contemporary astrophysics. It encompasses
a wide range of objects and phenomena: stars, supernovae, novae, neutron stars,
stellar-mass black holes, nucleosynthesis, the interstellar medium, cosmic rays
and relativistic-particle acceleration, and the evolution of galaxies. MeV
gamma-rays provide a unique probe of nuclear processes in astronomy, directly
measuring radioactive decay, nuclear de-excitation, and positron annihilation.
The substantial information carried by gamma-ray photons allows us to see
deeper into these objects, the bulk of the power is often emitted at gamma-ray
energies, and radioactivity provides a natural physical clock that adds unique
information. New science will be driven by time-domain population studies at
gamma-ray energies. This science is enabled by next-generation gamma-ray
instruments with one to two orders of magnitude better sensitivity, larger sky
coverage, and faster cadence than all previous gamma-ray instruments. This
transformative capability permits: (a) the accurate identification of the
gamma-ray emitting objects and correlations with observations taken at other
wavelengths and with other messengers; (b) construction of new gamma-ray maps
of the Milky Way and other nearby galaxies where extended regions are
distinguished from point sources; and (c) considerable serendipitous science of
scarce events — nearby neutron star mergers, for example. Advances in
technology push the performance of new gamma-ray instruments to address a wide
set of astrophysical questions.

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