Search for High-Energy Neutrinos from Ultra-Luminous Infrared Galaxies with IceCube. (arXiv:2107.03149v2 [astro-ph.HE] UPDATED)
<a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Collaboration_IceCube/0/1/0/all/0/1">IceCube Collaboration</a>: <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Abbasi_R/0/1/0/all/0/1">R. Abbasi</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Ackermann_M/0/1/0/all/0/1">M. Ackermann</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Adams_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">J. Adams</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Aguilar_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">J. A. Aguilar</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Ahlers_M/0/1/0/all/0/1">M. Ahlers</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Ahrens_M/0/1/0/all/0/1">M. Ahrens</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Alispach_C/0/1/0/all/0/1">C. Alispach</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Alves_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">A. A. Alves Jr.</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Amin_N/0/1/0/all/0/1">N. M. Amin</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+An_R/0/1/0/all/0/1">R. An</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Andeen_K/0/1/0/all/0/1">K. Andeen</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Anderson_T/0/1/0/all/0/1">T. Anderson</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Anton_G/0/1/0/all/0/1">G. Anton</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Arguelles_C/0/1/0/all/0/1">C. Arg&#xfc;elles</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Ashida_Y/0/1/0/all/0/1">Y. Ashida</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Axani_S/0/1/0/all/0/1">S. Axani</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Bai_X/0/1/0/all/0/1">X. Bai</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+V%2E_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">A. Balagopal V.</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Barbano_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">A. Barbano</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Barwick_S/0/1/0/all/0/1">S. W. Barwick</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Bastian_B/0/1/0/all/0/1">B. Bastian</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Basu_V/0/1/0/all/0/1">V. Basu</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Baur_S/0/1/0/all/0/1">S. Baur</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Bay_R/0/1/0/all/0/1">R. Bay</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Beatty_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">J. J. Beatty</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Becker_K/0/1/0/all/0/1">K.-H. Becker</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Tjus_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">J. Becker Tjus</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Bellenghi_C/0/1/0/all/0/1">C. Bellenghi</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+BenZvi_S/0/1/0/all/0/1">S. BenZvi</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Berley_D/0/1/0/all/0/1">D. Berley</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Bernardini_E/0/1/0/all/0/1">E. Bernardini</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Besson_D/0/1/0/all/0/1">D. Z. Besson</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Binder_G/0/1/0/all/0/1">G. Binder</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Bindig_D/0/1/0/all/0/1">D. Bindig</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Blaufuss_E/0/1/0/all/0/1">E. Blaufuss</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Blot_S/0/1/0/all/0/1">S. Blot</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Boddenberg_M/0/1/0/all/0/1">M. Boddenberg</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Bontempo_F/0/1/0/all/0/1">F. Bontempo</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Borowka_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">J. Borowka</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Boser_S/0/1/0/all/0/1">S. B&#xf6;ser</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Botner_O/0/1/0/all/0/1">O. Botner</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Bottcher_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">J. B&#xf6;ttcher</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Bourbeau_E/0/1/0/all/0/1">E. Bourbeau</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Bradascio_F/0/1/0/all/0/1">F. Bradascio</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Braun_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">J. Braun</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Bron_S/0/1/0/all/0/1">S. Bron</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Brostean_Kaiser_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">J. Brostean-Kaiser</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Browne_S/0/1/0/all/0/1">S. Browne</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Burgman_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">A. Burgman</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Burley_R/0/1/0/all/0/1">R. T. Burley</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Busse_R/0/1/0/all/0/1">R. S. Busse</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Campana_M/0/1/0/all/0/1">M. A. Campana</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Carnie_Bronca_E/0/1/0/all/0/1">E. G. Carnie-Bronca</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Chen_C/0/1/0/all/0/1">C. Chen</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Chirkin_D/0/1/0/all/0/1">D. Chirkin</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Choi_K/0/1/0/all/0/1">K. Choi</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Clark_B/0/1/0/all/0/1">B. A. Clark</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Clark_K/0/1/0/all/0/1">K. Clark</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Classen_L/0/1/0/all/0/1">L. Classen</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Coleman_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">A. Coleman</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Collin_G/0/1/0/all/0/1">G. H. Collin</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Conrad_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">J. M. Conrad</a>, et al. (319 additional authors not shown)

Ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) have infrared luminosities
$L_{mathrm{IR}} geq 10^{12} L_{odot}$, making them the most luminous objects
in the infrared sky. These dusty objects are generally powered by starbursts
with star-formation rates that exceed $100~ M_{odot}~ mathrm{yr}^{-1}$,
possibly combined with a contribution from an active galactic nucleus. Such
environments make ULIRGs plausible sources of astrophysical high-energy
neutrinos, which can be observed by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the
South Pole. We present a stacking search for high-energy neutrinos from a
representative sample of 75 ULIRGs with redshift $z leq 0.13$ using 7.5 years
of IceCube data. The results are consistent with a background-only observation,
yielding upper limits on the neutrino flux from these 75 ULIRGs. For an
unbroken $E^{-2.5}$ power-law spectrum, we report an upper limit on the stacked
flux $Phi_{nu_mu + bar{nu}_mu}^{90%} = 3.24 times 10^{-14}~
mathrm{TeV^{-1}~ cm^{-2}~ s^{-1}}~ (E/10~ mathrm{TeV})^{-2.5}$ at 90%
confidence level. In addition, we constrain the contribution of the ULIRG
source population to the observed diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux as well
as model predictions.

Ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) have infrared luminosities
$L_{mathrm{IR}} geq 10^{12} L_{odot}$, making them the most luminous objects
in the infrared sky. These dusty objects are generally powered by starbursts
with star-formation rates that exceed $100~ M_{odot}~ mathrm{yr}^{-1}$,
possibly combined with a contribution from an active galactic nucleus. Such
environments make ULIRGs plausible sources of astrophysical high-energy
neutrinos, which can be observed by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the
South Pole. We present a stacking search for high-energy neutrinos from a
representative sample of 75 ULIRGs with redshift $z leq 0.13$ using 7.5 years
of IceCube data. The results are consistent with a background-only observation,
yielding upper limits on the neutrino flux from these 75 ULIRGs. For an
unbroken $E^{-2.5}$ power-law spectrum, we report an upper limit on the stacked
flux $Phi_{nu_mu + bar{nu}_mu}^{90%} = 3.24 times 10^{-14}~
mathrm{TeV^{-1}~ cm^{-2}~ s^{-1}}~ (E/10~ mathrm{TeV})^{-2.5}$ at 90%
confidence level. In addition, we constrain the contribution of the ULIRG
source population to the observed diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux as well
as model predictions.

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