Growth of Jupiter: Formation in Disks of Gas and Solids and Evolution to the Present Epoch. (arXiv:2009.05575v1 [astro-ph.EP])

Growth of Jupiter: Formation in Disks of Gas and Solids and Evolution to the Present Epoch. (arXiv:2009.05575v1 [astro-ph.EP])
<a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+DAngelo_G/0/1/0/all/0/1">Gennaro D&#x27;Angelo</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Weidenschilling_S/0/1/0/all/0/1">Stuart J. Weidenschilling</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Lissauer_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">Jack J. Lissauer</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Bodenheimer_P/0/1/0/all/0/1">Peter Bodenheimer</a>

[Abridged] The formation of Jupiter is modeled via core-nucleated accretion,
and the planet’s evolution is simulated up to the present epoch. The growth
from a small embryo until gas accretion overtakes solids’ accretion was
presented by D’Angelo et al. (Icarus 2014, 241, 298). Those calculations
followed the formation for $4times 10^{5}$ years, until the heavy-element and
H/He masses were $M_{Z}approx 7.3$ and $M_{XY}approx 0.15$ Earth’s masses
($M_{oplus}$), respectively, and $dM_{XY}/dtapprox dM_{Z}/dt$. The
calculation is continued through the phase when $M_{XY}=M_{Z}$, at which age,
about $2.4times 10^{6}$ years, the planet mass is $M_{p}approx
20,M_{oplus}$. About $9times 10^{5}$ years later, $M_{p}$ is approximately
$60,M_{oplus}$ and $M_{Z}approx 16,M_{oplus}$. Around this epoch, the
contraction of the envelope dictates gas accretion rates a few times
$10^{-3},M_{oplus}$ per year, initiating the regime of disk-limited
accretion, when the planet’s evolution is tied to disk’s evolution. Growth is
continued by constructing simplified models of accretion disks that evolve
through viscous diffusion, winds, and accretion on the planet. Jupiter’s
formation ends after $approx 3.4$-$4.2$ Myr, when nebula gas disperses. The
young Jupiter is $4.5$-$5.5$ times as voluminous as it is presently and
thousands of times as luminous, $sim 10^{-5},L_{odot}$. The heavy-element
mass is $approx 20,M_{oplus}$. The evolution proceeds through the cooling
and contraction phase, in isolation except for solar irradiation. After $4570$
Myr, radius and luminosity of the planet are within $10$% of current values.
During formation, and soon thereafter, the planet exhibits features, e.g.,
luminosity and effective temperature, that may probe aspects of the latter
stages of formation, if observable. These possibly distinctive features,
however, seem to disappear within a few tens of Myr.

[Abridged] The formation of Jupiter is modeled via core-nucleated accretion,
and the planet’s evolution is simulated up to the present epoch. The growth
from a small embryo until gas accretion overtakes solids’ accretion was
presented by D’Angelo et al. (Icarus 2014, 241, 298). Those calculations
followed the formation for $4times 10^{5}$ years, until the heavy-element and
H/He masses were $M_{Z}approx 7.3$ and $M_{XY}approx 0.15$ Earth’s masses
($M_{oplus}$), respectively, and $dM_{XY}/dtapprox dM_{Z}/dt$. The
calculation is continued through the phase when $M_{XY}=M_{Z}$, at which age,
about $2.4times 10^{6}$ years, the planet mass is $M_{p}approx
20,M_{oplus}$. About $9times 10^{5}$ years later, $M_{p}$ is approximately
$60,M_{oplus}$ and $M_{Z}approx 16,M_{oplus}$. Around this epoch, the
contraction of the envelope dictates gas accretion rates a few times
$10^{-3},M_{oplus}$ per year, initiating the regime of disk-limited
accretion, when the planet’s evolution is tied to disk’s evolution. Growth is
continued by constructing simplified models of accretion disks that evolve
through viscous diffusion, winds, and accretion on the planet. Jupiter’s
formation ends after $approx 3.4$-$4.2$ Myr, when nebula gas disperses. The
young Jupiter is $4.5$-$5.5$ times as voluminous as it is presently and
thousands of times as luminous, $sim 10^{-5},L_{odot}$. The heavy-element
mass is $approx 20,M_{oplus}$. The evolution proceeds through the cooling
and contraction phase, in isolation except for solar irradiation. After $4570$
Myr, radius and luminosity of the planet are within $10$% of current values.
During formation, and soon thereafter, the planet exhibits features, e.g.,
luminosity and effective temperature, that may probe aspects of the latter
stages of formation, if observable. These possibly distinctive features,
however, seem to disappear within a few tens of Myr.

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