The ALPINE-ALMA [C II] Survey: Star formation-driven outflows and circumgalactic enrichment in the early Universe. (arXiv:1910.04770v1 [astro-ph.GA])

The ALPINE-ALMA [C II] Survey: Star formation-driven outflows and circumgalactic enrichment in the early Universe. (arXiv:1910.04770v1 [astro-ph.GA])
<a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Ginolfi_M/0/1/0/all/0/1">M. Ginolfi</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Jones_G/0/1/0/all/0/1">G. C. Jones</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Bethermin_M/0/1/0/all/0/1">M. Bethermin</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Fudamoto_Y/0/1/0/all/0/1">Y. Fudamoto</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Loiacono_F/0/1/0/all/0/1">F. Loiacono</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Fujimoto_S/0/1/0/all/0/1">S. Fujimoto</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Fevre_L/0/1/0/all/0/1">Le Fevre</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Faisst_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">A. Faisst</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Schaerer_D/0/1/0/all/0/1">D. Schaerer</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Cassata_P/0/1/0/all/0/1">P. Cassata</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Silverman_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">J. D. Silverman</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Yan_L/0/1/0/all/0/1">Lin Yan</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Capak_P/0/1/0/all/0/1">P. Capak</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Bardelli_S/0/1/0/all/0/1">S. Bardelli</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Boquien_M/0/1/0/all/0/1">M. Boquien</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Carraro_R/0/1/0/all/0/1">R. Carraro</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Dessauges_Zavadsky_M/0/1/0/all/0/1">M. Dessauges-Zavadsky</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Giavalisco_M/0/1/0/all/0/1">M. Giavalisco</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Gruppioni_C/0/1/0/all/0/1">C. Gruppioni</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Ibar_E/0/1/0/all/0/1">E. Ibar</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Khusanova_Y/0/1/0/all/0/1">Y. Khusanova</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Lemaux_B/0/1/0/all/0/1">B. C. Lemaux</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Maiolino_R/0/1/0/all/0/1">R. Maiolino</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Narayanan_D/0/1/0/all/0/1">D. Narayanan</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Oesch_P/0/1/0/all/0/1">P. Oesch</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Pozzi_F/0/1/0/all/0/1">F. Pozzi</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Rodighiero_G/0/1/0/all/0/1">G. Rodighiero</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Talia_M/0/1/0/all/0/1">M. Talia</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Toft_S/0/1/0/all/0/1">S. Toft</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Vallini_L/0/1/0/all/0/1">L. Vallini</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Vergani_D/0/1/0/all/0/1">D. Vergani</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Zamorani_G/0/1/0/all/0/1">G. Zamorani</a>

In this work we study the efficiency of galactic feedback in the early
Universe by stacking the [C II] 158um emission in a large sample of normal
star-forming galaxies at 4 < z < 6, drawn from the ALMA Large Program to INvestigate [C II] at Early times (ALPINE) survey. Searching for typical signatures of outflows in the high-velocity tails of the stacked [C II] profile, we observe (i) deviations from a single-component Gaussian model in the combined residuals and (ii) broad emission in the stacked [C II] spectrum, at velocities of |v|<~ 500 km/s. Interestingly, the significance of these features increases when stacking the sub-group of galaxies with star formation rates (SFRs) higher than the median (SFRmed = 25 Msun/yr), confirming their star formation-driven nature. The estimated typical mass outflow rates are comparable with the SFRs, yielding mass-loading factors of the order of unity (similarly to local normal star-forming galaxies), thus suggesting that star formation-driven feedback does not play a dominant role in quenching galaxies at z > 4. From the stacking analysis of the datacubes, we find that the
combined [C II] core emission (|v|< 200 km/s) of the higher SFR galaxies extends on physical sizes of ~30 kpc (diameter scale), well beyond the analogous [C II] core emission of lower SFR galaxies and the stacked FIR-continuum. The detection of such extended metal-enriched gas, likely tracing circumgalactic gas enriched by past outflows, corroborates previous similar studies, confirming that baryon cycle and gas exchanges with the circumgalactic medium are at work in normal star-forming galaxies already at early epochs.

In this work we study the efficiency of galactic feedback in the early
Universe by stacking the [C II] 158um emission in a large sample of normal
star-forming galaxies at 4 < z < 6, drawn from the ALMA Large Program to
INvestigate [C II] at Early times (ALPINE) survey. Searching for typical
signatures of outflows in the high-velocity tails of the stacked [C II]
profile, we observe (i) deviations from a single-component Gaussian model in
the combined residuals and (ii) broad emission in the stacked [C II] spectrum,
at velocities of |v|<~ 500 km/s. Interestingly, the significance of these
features increases when stacking the sub-group of galaxies with star formation
rates (SFRs) higher than the median (SFRmed = 25 Msun/yr), confirming their
star formation-driven nature. The estimated typical mass outflow rates are
comparable with the SFRs, yielding mass-loading factors of the order of unity
(similarly to local normal star-forming galaxies), thus suggesting that star
formation-driven feedback does not play a dominant role in quenching galaxies
at z > 4. From the stacking analysis of the datacubes, we find that the
combined [C II] core emission (|v|< 200 km/s) of the higher SFR galaxies
extends on physical sizes of ~30 kpc (diameter scale), well beyond the
analogous [C II] core emission of lower SFR galaxies and the stacked
FIR-continuum. The detection of such extended metal-enriched gas, likely
tracing circumgalactic gas enriched by past outflows, corroborates previous
similar studies, confirming that baryon cycle and gas exchanges with the
circumgalactic medium are at work in normal star-forming galaxies already at
early epochs.

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