Search for Intra-day Optical Variability in $gamma$-ray–loud Blazars S5 0716+714 and 3C 273. (arXiv:1906.06568v1 [astro-ph.GA])

Search for Intra-day Optical Variability in $gamma$-ray–loud Blazars S5 0716+714 and 3C 273. (arXiv:1906.06568v1 [astro-ph.GA])
<a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Liu_H/0/1/0/all/0/1">H. T. Liu</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Feng_H/0/1/0/all/0/1">Hai Cheng Feng</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Xin_Y/0/1/0/all/0/1">Y. X. Xin</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Bai_J/0/1/0/all/0/1">J. M. Bai</a>

We present the photometric observations of blazars S5 0716+714 and 3C 273
with high temporal resolution (30–60s) in the $I$ or $R$ bands. The
observations were performed with the 1.02 m optical telescope from 2007 March
07 to 2012 May 16. The $F$-test, one-way ANOVA test, and ZDCF cross-correlation
zero lag test are used to search for intra-day variability (IDV). Four and five
reliable IDVs survive three tests for S5 0716+714 and 3C 273, respectively.
IDVs are found for S5 0716+714 and 3C 273. A flare on 2008 May 08 has $Delta I
approx$ 0.06$pm$0.01 mag in a duration of 0.54 hours for S5 0716+714. A flare
on 2011 May 10 shows $Delta R approx$ 0.05$pm$0.01 mag in a duration of 0.40
hours for 3C 273. Sharp dips appear on 2011 May 9 for 3C 273, and show $Delta
R approx$ 0.05$pm$0.01 mag. Under the assumptions that the IDV is tightly
connected to black hole mass $M_{bullet}$, and that the flare durations are
representative of the minimum characteristic timescales, we can estimate upper
bounds to $M_{bullet}$. In the case of the Kerr black holes, $M_{bullet} la
10^{8.91} M_{odot}$ and $M_{bullet} la 10^{9.02} M_{odot}$ are given for S5
0716+714 and 3C 273, respectively. These mass measurements are consistent with
those measurements reported in the literatures. Also, we discuss the origins of
optical variations found in this work.

We present the photometric observations of blazars S5 0716+714 and 3C 273
with high temporal resolution (30–60s) in the $I$ or $R$ bands. The
observations were performed with the 1.02 m optical telescope from 2007 March
07 to 2012 May 16. The $F$-test, one-way ANOVA test, and ZDCF cross-correlation
zero lag test are used to search for intra-day variability (IDV). Four and five
reliable IDVs survive three tests for S5 0716+714 and 3C 273, respectively.
IDVs are found for S5 0716+714 and 3C 273. A flare on 2008 May 08 has $Delta I
approx$ 0.06$pm$0.01 mag in a duration of 0.54 hours for S5 0716+714. A flare
on 2011 May 10 shows $Delta R approx$ 0.05$pm$0.01 mag in a duration of 0.40
hours for 3C 273. Sharp dips appear on 2011 May 9 for 3C 273, and show $Delta
R approx$ 0.05$pm$0.01 mag. Under the assumptions that the IDV is tightly
connected to black hole mass $M_{bullet}$, and that the flare durations are
representative of the minimum characteristic timescales, we can estimate upper
bounds to $M_{bullet}$. In the case of the Kerr black holes, $M_{bullet} la
10^{8.91} M_{odot}$ and $M_{bullet} la 10^{9.02} M_{odot}$ are given for S5
0716+714 and 3C 273, respectively. These mass measurements are consistent with
those measurements reported in the literatures. Also, we discuss the origins of
optical variations found in this work.

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