Quantifying the Propagation of Fast Coronal Mass Ejections from the Sun to Interplanetary Space Combining Remote Sensing and Multi-Point in-situ Observations. (arXiv:1908.04450v1 [astro-ph.SR])

<a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Zhao_X/0/1/0/all/0/1">Xiaowei Zhao</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Liu_Y/0/1/0/all/0/1">Ying D. Liu</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Hu_H/0/1/0/all/0/1">Huidong Hu</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Wang_R/0/1/0/all/0/1">Rui Wang</a>

In order to have a comprehensive view of the propagation and evolution of

coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from the Sun to deep interplanetary space beyond

1 au, we carry out a kinematic analysis of 7 CMEs in solar cycle 23. The events

are required to have coordinated coronagraph observations, interplanetary type

II radio bursts, and multi-point in-situ measurements at the Earth and Ulysses.

A graduated cylindrical shell model, an analytical model without free

parameters and a magnetohydrodynamic model are used to derive CME kinematics

near the Sun, to quantify the CME/shock propagation in the Sun-Earth space, and

to connect in-situ signatures at the Earth and Ulysses, respectively. We find

that each of the 7 CME-driven shocks experienced a major deceleration before

reaching 1 au and thereafter propagated with a gradual deceleration from the

Earth to larger distances. The resulting CME/shock propagation profile for each

case is roughly consistent with all the data, which verifies the usefulness of

the simple analytical model for CME/shock propagation in the heliosphere. The

statistical analysis of CME kinematics indicates a tendency that the faster the

CME, the larger the deceleration, and the shorter the deceleration time period

within 1 au. For several of these events, the associated geomagnetic storms

were mainly caused by the southward magnetic fields in the sheath region. In

particular, the interaction between a CME-driven shock and a preceding ejecta

significantly enhanced the preexisting southward magnetic fields and gave rise

to a severe complex geomagnetic storm.

In order to have a comprehensive view of the propagation and evolution of

coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from the Sun to deep interplanetary space beyond

1 au, we carry out a kinematic analysis of 7 CMEs in solar cycle 23. The events

are required to have coordinated coronagraph observations, interplanetary type

II radio bursts, and multi-point in-situ measurements at the Earth and Ulysses.

A graduated cylindrical shell model, an analytical model without free

parameters and a magnetohydrodynamic model are used to derive CME kinematics

near the Sun, to quantify the CME/shock propagation in the Sun-Earth space, and

to connect in-situ signatures at the Earth and Ulysses, respectively. We find

that each of the 7 CME-driven shocks experienced a major deceleration before

reaching 1 au and thereafter propagated with a gradual deceleration from the

Earth to larger distances. The resulting CME/shock propagation profile for each

case is roughly consistent with all the data, which verifies the usefulness of

the simple analytical model for CME/shock propagation in the heliosphere. The

statistical analysis of CME kinematics indicates a tendency that the faster the

CME, the larger the deceleration, and the shorter the deceleration time period

within 1 au. For several of these events, the associated geomagnetic storms

were mainly caused by the southward magnetic fields in the sheath region. In

particular, the interaction between a CME-driven shock and a preceding ejecta

significantly enhanced the preexisting southward magnetic fields and gave rise

to a severe complex geomagnetic storm.

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